What is electron affinity class 11?

What is electron affinity class 11?

Electron affinity is defined as. The amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form an anion. The electron affinity is the potential energy change of the atom when an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atom to form a negative ion.

What is 1st and 2nd electron affinity?

There are two types of electron affinity, first and second. The first involves the addition of an electron to a neutral atom. Because this exothermic process releases energy, first electron affinities are negative values. The second pertains to the addition of an electron to a negative ion.

What is the rule for electron affinity?

As with ionization energy, there are two rules that govern the periodic trends of electron affinities: Electron affinity becomes less negative down a group. As the principal quantum number increases, the size of the orbital increases and the affinity for the electron is less.

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What is electron affinity and electronegativity?

Electronegativity is defined as a chemical property which decides the propensity of an atom to attract an electron. In the year 1932, Linus Pauling proposed the concept of electronegativity. Electron affinity is defined as the amount of energy liberated when a molecule or neutral atom acquires an electron from outside.

Why is electron affinity positive?

Remember that the definition of an electron affinity is the energy released, so that means that the reaction is exothermic. If a reaction is exothermic, the change in energy is negative. This means that the electron affinity is positive.

What is electron affinity value?

Unlike electronegativity, electron affinity is a quantitative measurement of the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a neutral gas atom. The more negative the electron affinity value, the higher an atom’s affinity for electrons.

Which has maximum electron affinity?

Halogens have maximum electron affinity due to their smaller size.

Why 2nd electron affinity is endothermic?

2nd electron affinity is always endothermic (positive) because the electron is added to an ion which is already negative therefore it must overcome the repulsion.

What is the lowest electron affinity?

Thus, oxygen has the lowest electron affinity.

What factors affect electron affinity?

The three factors affecting the electron affinity of a molecule are Nuclear Charge, Atomic Size, and Electronic Configuration. Nuclear Charge: The greater the nuclear charge, the greater will be the attraction of the incoming electron. This will result in a larger value of electron affinity.

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Why does electron affinity increase up a group?

As the number of protons increase, the nucleus of the atom becomes more positively charged. The increase in positive charge increases the attraction between the nucleus and the electrons of the atom. Thus, the electrons are held more tightly towards the nucleus, increasing electron affinity.

What is electron affinity vs ionization energy?

Ionization energy: the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom. Electron affinity: the energy change when a neutral atom attracts an electron to become a negative ion.

What’s the difference between electron affinity and ionization energy?

The main difference between electron affinity and ionization energy is that electron affinity gives the amount of energy released when an atom gains an electron whereas ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom.

What is the difference between electron affinity electronegativity and ionization energy?

Electronegativity is the measure of how likely the atom attracts bonding electrons to itself. Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion or gaseous atom. And for electron affinity, its definition is the amount of energy released or used when an electron is added to an atom.

What is the highest ionization energy?

helium
Thus, helium has the largest first ionization energy, while francium has one of the lowest.

What is the electron affinity of oxygen?

141 kJ/mol
Electron Affinity of Oxygen is 141 kJ/mol.

Which has more electron affinity O or O?

Therefore, the “greater” electron affinity (really, the more favorable electron affinity) is with O .

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Is electron affinity positive or negative?

Electron affinities are the negative ion equivalent, and their use is almost always confined to elements in groups 6 and 7 of the Periodic Table. The first electron affinity is the energy released when 1 mole of gaseous atoms each acquire an electron to form 1 mole of gaseous 1- ions.

Which has higher electron affinity Li or be?

Electron affinity of lithium and beryllium

Therefore, lithium has affinity to receive electrons in 2s sub-shell but for beryllium, a still higher energy 2p level is needed. Hence beryllium resists gaining extra electrons in higher energy 2p orbital.

Why are the electron affinity of halogens so high?

The atomic size of halogens is very small. The smaller the atomic size , the greater the electron affinity , because the effective attractive force between the nucleus and the valence electrons is greater in smaller atoms , and so the electrons are held firmly.

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